Geneva Conventions, a series of international treaties concluded in Geneva between 1864 and 1949 to mitigate the effects of war on soldiers and civilians. Two additional protocols to the 1949 Agreement were approved in 1977. In October 1863, delegates from 16 countries, as well as military medical personnel, traveled to Geneva to discuss the terms of a humanitarian agreement during the war. This meeting and the resulting treaty, signed by 12 nations, became known as the first Geneva Convention. In the two decades since the adoption of the Geneva Conventions, the world has seen an increase in the number of non-international armed conflicts and national wars of liberation. In response, two additional protocols to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 were adopted in 1977. They strengthen the protection of victims of international (Protocol I) and non-international (Protocol II) armed conflicts and set limits on how wars are fought. Protocol II was the first international treaty devoted exclusively to situations of non-international armed conflict. The terrible suffering Dunant saw hit him so hard that in 1862 he wrote a first-hand account entitled A Memory of Solferino. But not only did he write about what he had observed, but he also proposed a solution: all nations come together to form trained and volunteer relief groups, to treat the wounded on the battlefield, and to offer humanitarian aid to those affected by the war.
The Geneva Conventions adopted before 1949. only dealt with combatants, not civilians. The events of the Second World War showed the catastrophic consequences of the absence of a convention to protect civilians in time of war. The Convention, adopted in 1949, takes into account the experience of the Second World War. It consists of 159 articles. It contains a short section on the general protection of the population from certain consequences of war, without mentioning the course of hostilities as such, which was subsequently discussed in the Additional Protocols of 1977. Most of the Convention deals with the status and treatment of protected persons and distinguishes between the situation of aliens in the territory of one of the parties to the conflict and the situation of civilians in the occupied territories. It lays down the obligations of the occupying Power towards the civilian population and contains detailed provisions on humanitarian assistance to the population of the occupied territories. It also contains specific regulations for the treatment of civilian internees. It contains three annexes containing a model agreement on hospital and security zones, model regulations on humanitarian aid and model maps. Not all offences are treated in the same way.
The most serious crimes are called serious crimes and provide a legal definition of a war crime. Grave violations of the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions include the following acts when committed against a person protected by the Convention: In international law, the term Convention does not have its common meaning as an assembly of persons. Rather, it is used in diplomacy to refer to an international agreement or treaty. On October 20, 1868, the first unsuccessful attempt was made to extend the 1864 treaty. With the “Supplementary Articles on the Condition of the War Wounded”, an attempt was made to clarify certain rules of the 1864 Convention and extend them to naval warfare. The articles have been signed but ratified only by the Netherlands and the United States of America.  The Netherlands subsequently withdrew its ratification.  The protection of victims of naval warfare was then ensured by the Third Hague Convention of 1899 and the Tenth Hague Convention of 1907.  This Convention is the fourth updated version of the Geneva Convention on the Wounded and Sick after the Conventions adopted in 1864, 1906 and 1929. It contains 64 articles. They ensure the protection of the wounded and sick, but also medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical transport.
The Convention also recognizes distinctive emblems. It contains two annexes with a draft agreement on hospital areas and a model map for medical and religious personnel. The previous proposal led to the creation of the Red Cross in Geneva. The latter led to the Geneva Convention in 1864, the first codified international treaty covering sick and wounded soldiers on the battlefield. On 22 August 1864, the Swiss government invited the governments of all European countries as well as the United States, Brazil and Mexico to an official diplomatic conference. Sixteen countries sent a total of twenty-six delegates to Geneva. On August 22, 1864, the Conference adopted the first Geneva Convention “to improve the situation of the wounded in armies on the ground.” Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms have signed the Convention: The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols are a body of international law, also known as the humanitarian law of armed conflict, whose purpose is to ensure minimum protection, standards of humane treatment and fundamental guarantees of respect for persons who become victims of armed conflict. The Geneva Conventions are a set of treaties on the treatment of civilians, prisoners of war and soldiers who are otherwise rendered hors de combat (French, literally “hors combat”) or incapable. The first convention was initiated by the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (ICRC). This convention led to a treaty designed to protect wounded and sick soldiers during the war.
The Swiss government agreed to hold the conventions in Geneva, and a few years later a similar agreement was reached to protect the shipwrecked soldiers. In 1949, after the Second World War, two new conventions were added and the Geneva Conventions entered into force on 21 October 1950. Ratification has grown steadily over the decades: 74 states ratified the conventions in the 1950s, 48 states did so in the 1960s, 20 states signed in the 1970s, and another 20 states did so in the 1980s. Twenty-six countries ratified the conventions in the early 1990s, particularly after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and the former Yugoslavia. Seven new ratifications since 2000 have brought the total number of States parties to 194, making the Geneva Conventions universally applicable. While the Geneva Conventions of 1949 have generally been ratified, the Additional Protocols have not. At present, 168 States are parties to Additional Protocol I and 164 States to Additional Protocol II, making the 1977 Additional Protocols one of the most widely used legal instruments in the world. The Geneva Conventions include four treaties and three additional protocols that set international standards for humanitarian treatment in times of war. The singular term Geneva Convention generally refers to the 1949 conventions negotiated after World War II (1939-1945), which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties and added two new conventions. The Geneva Conventions defined in detail the fundamental rights of prisoners of war (civilian and military), established protection for the wounded and sick, and established protection for the civilian population in and around a war zone.
The 1949 treaties were ratified in full or with reservations by 196 countries.  In addition, the Geneva Convention also defines the rights and protection granted to non-combatants. The Geneva Conventions concern soldiers at war; they do not deal with the actual conduct of war – the use of weapons of war – which is the subject of the Hague Conventions[a] and the Geneva Protocol on Biochemical Warfare. [b] The elaboration of the Geneva Conventions was closely linked to the Red Cross, whose founder, Henri Dunant, began international negotiations that led to the Convention for the Improvement of the Wounded in Time of War in 1864[b]. This Convention provided for (1) the immunity of all treatment facilities for wounded and sick soldiers and their personnel from capture and destruction, (2) the impartial reception and treatment of all combatants, (3) the protection of civilians assisting the wounded, and (4) the recognition of the Red Cross Symbol as a means of identifying persons and equipment, covered by the Agreement. .